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<nettime> Tampere: Resisting the Fortress Europe

1......cross the border <> : AROUND TAMPERE AND ALL OVER EUROPE
2......News Release Issued by the International Secretariat of Amnesty
3......Towards a Different Europe <>: EU extra-ordinary
summit in Tampere


cross the border <>
AG3F <>
temporary media lab <>
tampere counter summit <>


Dear friends,

in a few days, the Tampere European Council Summit will begin. This is the
first conference of presidents of EU-member states, which is specifically
devoted to so-called "Justice and Home affairs". Heads of government are
going to present migration and asylum affairs as a security issue, as well
as institutionalizing the appalling border regime on a European level.

Hopefully, this show of power of Fortress Europe will prompt anti-racist
initiatives to protest in many European cities. After several groups from
France, Belgium and Germany published an appeal in August, for europe-wide,
decentralised actions on the 15 October, groups from other countries
followed the initiative.

If the interest shown was serious and the ideas discussed will be put into
practise, actions on the 15 October can be expected take place in the
following countries: France, Belgium, Italy, Denmark, the Netherlands,
Poland, Switzerland, Germany, and, of course, Finland. Finnish groups had
already created a special mailing list several weeks ago. It summarises
activities from different cities which have taken place in the run-up to
Tampere and invites everyone to take part in the demonstration and
conference in Tampere itself on 15-16 October.

Due to the fact that many groups will not be able to make it to Finland,
one can only expect smaller delegations to arrive. But both, the activism
'on site' on the 16th as well as the decentralised actions on the 15th have
to be understood as a common project. That is why it is very important that
a direct exchange, contact and coordination is well organised throughout
these days, that we can relate to and rely on each other, concerning the
content as well as practicalities. We need to pose a presence towards the
press and the public, with common positions and counter activities.

Since the 9 October, an international network has set up a temporary media
lab in Finland:

It will act as a catalyst and coordinating force for the above mentioned
projects. In order to do this, however, the media lab depends on the help
of all activists, who organise their protests "around Tampere" and "all
over Europe".

This memo has been sent to to all groups and organisations that have shown
an interest and/or have already announced activities. We ask all of you to
please give us a rapid response about your actions (as far as they are
public) as well as indications of how to contact you so information flow
can be guaranteed. It would be helpful to have e-mail adresses and
telephone and fax numbers, so that we can reach you before and during the
Summit. Through mobile phones and the use of digital cameras, direct links
can be established and pictures from the different actions exchanged. This
would also lead to a more effective press work in Tampere....

All of this, however, completely depends on your cooperation and activism!

So please, get in touch.

P.S.: If, and we very much hope this is the case, the 15-16 October see
several parallel actions in different European cities, and further, these
are coordinated and information is exchanged, we will organise another
Europe-wide follow-up meeting in December, in order to talk about future


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 11 Oct 1999 13:37:54 +0200 (CEST)
From: Geert Lovink <>

* News Release Issued by the International Secretariat of Amnesty
International *

7 October 1999


The special EU summit on justice and home affairs following the Amsterdam
Treaty's entry into force must result in a re-opening of the EU's doors to
those seeking protection from persecution. "The message Amnesty
International expects from Heads of States and Governments meeting in
Tampere is that the EU will comply with its commitment to the

Geneva Convention and International Human Rights Laws and grant full
protection to refugees", Brigitte Ernst de la Graete, Director of AI 's EU
Assocation said.

"In the new framework of the Amsterdam Treaty, the Tampere summit offers

a unique opportunity for a turn-around towards the respect for
international standards in the future EU asylum policy." Yet, there is a

serious risk that Heads of States and Governments will simply confirm years
of increasing control and a de facto lock-out policy.

Full Protection "Amnesty International notices an increasing gap between
the EU governments' rhetoric on asylum issues and reality. While they keep
paying lip-service to upholding their international obligations to refugee
protection, facts demonstrate the opposite." National governments have
implemented measures aimed at preventing legitimate refugees seeking asylum
from persecution from reaching Europe and, once in the EU, from obtaining
full refugee status with full rights.

International Solidarity Over the last decade, the trend has been on a
closed-doors attitude, aimed at protecting "Fortress Europe" when the
numbers of asylum seekers

reaching the EU is minimal. In 1998, less than 30.000 were granted asylum
in EU member states. The EU hosted 16 percent of the world's 16,5

million refugees and displaced persons last year, and even when crisises

arise in Europ, the EU is not faced with massive influxes, as recently
domenstrated by the Kosovo crisis. Of the 880.000 displaced in the region,
some 100.000 applied for asylum outside the region and 75.400 of

them returned to Kosovo after agreement was reached between NATO and

"Instead of argueing about the sharing of the so-called burden of asylum

seekers and displaced persons, the 15 member states, which are among the

wealthiest countries in the world, should show their solidarity with poorer
regions hosting the overwhelming majority of refugees and displaced
persons." It must be ensured that already scarce resources for

Amnesty International is an independent worldwide movement working for the
release of all prisoners of conscience, fair and prompt trials for
political prisoners and an end to torture, extrajudicial executions,
"disappearances" and the death penalty. It is funded by donations from its
members and supporters throughout the world. It has formal relations

with the United Nations, UNESCO, the Council of Europe, the Organization

of African Unity and the Organization of American States. programmes
urgently needed in regions where asylum problems are acute are not
detracted to prevent refugees from reaching EU territory.

Tackling Human Rights Violations Amnesty International shares the view that
a comprehensive approach to asylum issues is needed. "EU governments focus
on control and do not adress the source of refugee flows, which is the
disrespect for human rights in the countries of origin." However, the
recently presented action plans of the EU High Level Working Group on
Asylum and Migration fall short of its initial goal to consider the need to
improve respect for human rights and the socio-economic situation in
countries where asylum seekers come from. The measures proposed are mostly
devoted to prevent migration into the EU, such as the incease in the
effectiveness of airline liason officers in implementing the EU's visa
regime in countries of origin, the fight against forged documents, the
design of readmission agreements (agreements on the obligation of third
countries to take back people entering on an irregular manner without the
necessary authorization).

"The implementation of these measures ignores the specific needs of people
seeking protection. Asylum and protections measures for those who

flee human rights abuses cannot be subordinated to migration control."
Amnesty International stresses that the accent should be on protecting and
not preventing refugees coming to Europe.

For further information or to arrange for an interview, please contact:
MarÌa-Teresa Gil-Bazo, Executive Officer for Asylum Issues Gabriele Juen,
Executive Officer Amnesty International EU Association T + 32/2/502 1499, F
+32/2/502 56 86

ENDS.../ Amnesty International, International Secretariat, 1 Easton Street,
WC1X 8DJ, London, United Kingdom
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Contact if you need to get in touch with the
International Secretariat of Amnesty International.

_______________________________________________ Border mailing list


---------- Forwarded message ----------
Date: Mon, 11 Oct 1999 13:54:19 +0200 (CEST)
Subject: tampere
From: Towards a Different Europe <>

EU extra-ordinary summit in Tampere Constructing an area of justice or an
area surveillance?
by Thomas Wallgren, Nej til EU Finland

On October 15-16 1999 EU will hold an extra-ordinary summit on "internal
security" and on cooperation in judicial matters and home affairs, i.e. on
a large array of politically sensitive areas such as border control,
immigration and refugee policies, criminal and civil law, cross-border
police-cooperation, data-surveillance, etc. The venue is the second Finnish
town, Tampere. There will also be a whole array of related action by
movements and NGOs.


Why this summit at this time? Two key explanations can be given. One is
technocratic and the other is political. Both reasons need to be understood.

According to the treaty of Rome and the Maastricht Treaty EU has a large
role to play in cooperation between its member states in home affairs and
judicial matters. Under these treaties this cooperation constituted,
however, the "third pillar" of the EU, meaning that all decisions were
taken by consensus and the power of the EU-commission rather limited.
During the 1990s the daily work by many working groups on police and border
control cooperation among EU-countries which have often worked in secrecy
and have been of an ad hoc nature have together with two new treaties - the
Schengen Treaty and the Amsterdam Treaty - greatly extended the power and
influence of EU-level regulations and organisations in the member states
over what used to be EU's third pillar. There has been resentment among
some members against this "communitarisation" of the third pillar. Thus
Ireland, the UK and Denmark all have various exceptions >from the
stipulations of the Amsterdam Treaty concerning in particular border
control and police cooperation. Nevertheless, some EU-countries are keen to
use the possibilities opened up by Amsterdam Treaty to create centralised
EU-policies on immigration, refugees, visas, data-surveillance, civil and
criminal law and to create also the EU-police-forces and other operative
organisations needed to implement these policies. These countries are the
one who run the show in Tampere. The very purpose of the meeting is to use
the new possibilities opened up by the Amsterdam treaty to extend
centralised EU-authority, competence and instruments into new areas.

Politically the background to the Tampere summit is quite bleak. Through
its selfish role in international economic politics the EU is actively
building a world of disparity, strife and even wars between and within
regions and nations. Hence, EU faces the "problem" that some of the victims
of the poverty, inequality, wars and calamities which the EU helps to
create seek to come the EU-region - as immigrants and refugees. In order to
prevent such cross-border movement the EU leadership wishes to put into
place tighter border controls - a construction of Fortress Europe. Hence,
the Schengen and Amsterdam treaties and the need for the Tampere summit.

Secondly, through its neoliberal economic policies within its own area, the
EU is building a society with increasing income gaps, a decline of social
and job security, marginalisation or large sections of the population etc.
In consequence, criminality, social unrest and political opposition is on
the rise. The EU leadership has not wanted to respond with a change towards
democracy, justice and equality in social and economic policy. Hence, it
needs to respond by creating new instruments for policing and surveillance
of its own citizens. And hence, again, the need for the Tampere summit.


The Finnish EU-presidency has not to date (31.8.) presented details of the
agenda. Interviews with leading civil servants inform us that Finland is,
together with the commission of the EU determined to use the summit to
promote the idea of the EU as one state with a coherent set of laws,
practices and institutions in judicial matters, policing and immigration.
In official EU-communication these efforts are called efforts to build an
"area of justice and security". It remains possible, however, that the
aftermath of the Kosovo-war - peace-keeping, aid, refugees - will dominate
the agenda at Tampere.


There are NGO-activities of three kinds planned; protests, analysis and

PROTESTS against the EU-policies of exclusion and surveillance will be
heard at an international counter-summit in Tampere 15th-17th October
organised by an NGO-coalition including solidarity groups, anarchists,
anti-fascists and others. The counter-summit includes a demonstration and
various seminars for analysis and coordination of future work. See the
web-site: <> or e-mail: <>

ANALYSIS will be provided at the counter-summit and at an international
seminar in Tampere on October 13th organised by EU-critical groups, Friends
of the Earth Finland and some NGOs from the red-green spectrum.

Main speakers at the seminar are: Nicholas Busch (Editor of Fortress
Europe, Sweden/Swizerland), prof., MEP Ole Krarup (Denmark), prof. Lode van
Outrive (Belgium), prof. Thomas Mathiesen (Norway), Peter Noorlander
(Justice, UK)  and MEP Matti Wuori (Finland). For details send mail to:

LOBBYING at the counter-summit will be exercised by AGIT (Academic Group on
Immigration - Tampere), e-mail: <> and by ECRE (European
Council on Refugees and Exiles, website: <>. Both AGIT
and ECRE also provide background documents.

---------------------------------------------------------------- INVITATION
TO TAMPERE, FINLAND, 13TH OCTOBER 1999 International seminar on EU,
Internal Security and Human Rights

Venue: University of Tampere, Main building, hall DXB Address: Kalevantie
4, Tampere Time: 13th October 1999, 9.00. am. - 7.00. pm.


With the coming into effect of the Schengen and Amsterdam Treaties
EU-cooperation in the fields of immigration, asylum, justice and home
affairs has been greatly advanced. The treaties and their various annexes,
enforcement manuals and protocols form an unusually complex and convoluted
package of legislation. Public scrutiny of the existing treaties as well as
democratic influence on new reforms has therefore been made extremely
difficult. Hence, there is an urgent need to provide a "citizen's guide" to
the significance of recent EU-developments for basic human rights and

All interested citizens, journalists, researchers and policy makers are
invited to an international expert meeting in Tampere, October 13th 1999,
which is designed to serve as one such guide.

The meeting is organised by a group of Finnish, non-party NGOs comprising
Alternative to the EU, Finland, Folkets Bildningsf–rbund, Friends of the
Earth, Finland and the Finnish Peace Committee. The organising groups do
not have a common view on EU-politics, but we all agree about the need for
enhanced public debate as a prerequisite for informed and effective
democratic influence and action.

The conference in Tampere brings together prominent lawyers, legal
scholars, sociologists and activists from at at least seven western
European nations to analyse the effects of ongoing and planned developments
of justice, police and border-control cooperation within the European Union.

The confirmed speakers are:

- Tony Bunyan, editor of Statewatch, England - Nicholas Busch, editor of
Fortress Europe, Switzerland/Sweden - Ole Krarup, prof., MEP, Denmark -
Thomas Mathiesen, professor of sociology of law, Norway - Peter Noorlander,
legal policy officer, Justice, England - Lode van Outrive, prof.em., former
MEP, Belgium - Florian Schneider, activist, Kein Mensch ist Illegal,
Germany - Matti Wuori, lawyer, MEP, Finland (reservation for possible
overlapping obligation in the EP)

All speakers have earned international recognition for their contributions
to research and public debate on EU-cooperation in the fields of justice,
immigration, asylum, policing and data protection and the effects of this
cooperation on fundamental human rights and liberties.

The working langauge will be English. Participation in the debate in other
languages will be facilitated. Proceedings are scheduled for the whole day,
from 9.30 a.m. to 7.30 p.m.

Each speaker will present a paper followed by debate. Together the papers
seek to provide the essential conceptual tools, interpretative guidance and
empirical facts required for anyone wishing to understand, monitor and
influence EU-policies. Abstracts of the main papers will be available
before the conference and full papers can be obtained at the conference.

The last hours of the conference will be used for a public debate focusing
on the agenda of the EU-summit on "Internal Security" in Tampere, October
15th and 16th. Representatives of immigrant and anti-racist organisations
and of the Finnish EU-presidency will take part in the panel together with
the expert speakers of the day.

For copies of abstracts, detailed information about the speakers and the
programme or any other further information please contact:
or visit our web-site at <>.

For information about other NGO-activities at Tampere in October see:
<> and <>.


9.00-10.00:	Arrival, coffee, registration
10.00		Opening of the meeting.
10.10		Prof. Thomas Mathiesen: The Globalisation of Control:
Policing the New Europe.. Presentation + discussion.
11.00 		Prof. Lode van Outrive: European Police Cooperation and
Human Rights after Amsterdam. Presentation + discussion
11.45		Mr. Peter Noorlander, Citizen's Rights and Liberties in
Western Europe: The significance of the EU treaties. Presentation +
12.30-14.00	LUNCH
14.00		Mr. Nicholas Busch: Asylum and Immigration Policies of the
EU: An effective means of maintaining security and stability in Europe?
14.45		Prof. Ole Krarup: Democracy and European Integration: What
is happening to the democratic structures guaranteed by national
constitutions after Maastricht and Amsterdam?  Presentation + discussion
15.30		Mr. Matti Wuori: EU and Human Rights (reservation for >
	possible overlapping obligation in the EP)
16.15-17.00	COFFEE
17.00-19.30	Panel discussion focusing on the Tampere summit.
(Finnish-English translation available)

- Participants: Tony Bunyan (UK), Nicholas Busch (Sweden), Ole Krarup
(Denmark), Peter Noorlander (UK), Lode van Outrive (Belgium), Florian
Schneider (Kein Mensch ist Illegal, Germany), representatives of the
Finnish EU-presidency and ministry of justice.

An evening get-together with informal discussions for all participants will
also be arranged.

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