Andreas Broeckmann on Sun, 15 Nov 1998 23:02:12 +0100 (CET)

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<nettime> A. Broeckmann: Minor Media - Heterogenic Machines

[This text was originally written for an essay collection about the work of
Guattari which will be published as the first Cahier (CFKj) of the Centre
for Philosophy & Art (CFK). This is a research centre within the Faculty of
Philosophy of the Erasmus University Rotterdam (EUR). The research project
'Intermediality' ('Intermedialiteit') explores the blurring boundaries
between philosophy, art and politics. At the end of February 1999, a
symposium at the EUR will be dedicated to the work of Guattari and to the
theme of intermediality.]

Andreas Broeckmann

Minor Media - Heterogenic Machines

Notes on Felix Guattari's conceptions of art and new media

1. A minor philosopher

According to Guattari and Deleuze's definition, a 'minor literature' is the
literature of a minority that makes use of a major language, a literature
which deterritorialises that language and interconnects meanings of the
most disparate levels, inseparably mixing and implicating poetic,
psychological, social and political issues with each other. In analogy, the
Japanese media theorist Toshiya Ueno has recently refered to Felix Guattari
as a 'minor philosopher'. Himself a practicing psychoanalyst, Guattari was
a foreigner to the Grand Nation of Philosophy, whose natives mostly treat
him like an unworthy bastard. And yet he has established a garden of minor
flowers, of bastard weeds and rhizomes that are as polluting to
contemporary philosophy as Kafka's writing has been to German literature.
(cf K)

The strategies of 'being minor' are, as exemplified by Guattari's writings
(with and without Deleuze), deployed in multiple contexts: intensification,
re-functionalisation, estrangement, transgression. In the following I want
to offer a brief overview over the way in which Guattari conceptualises
media, new technologies and art. As a proposition for further discussion, I
include descriptions of several media art projects that may help to
illustrate some of the potentials of such 'minor machines'. Without wanting
to pin these projects down as 'Guattarian' artworks, I suggest that the
specific practices of contemporary media artists can point us in the
direction of the re-singularising, deterritorialising and subjectifying
forces which Guattari indicated as being germane to media technologies.
This essay, then, is an experiment that tests the resonances between
Guattari's thinking and different artistic projects.

Many artists who work with media technologies do so through strategies of
appropriation and from a position of 'being minor': 'Whenever a
marginality, a minority, becomes active, takes the word power (puissance de
verbe), transforms itself into becoming, and not merely submitting to it,
identical with its condition, but in active, processual becoming, it
engenders a singular trajectory that is necessarily deterritorialising
because, precisely, it's a minority that begins to subvert a majority, a
consensus, a great aggregate. As long as a minority, a cloud, is on a
border, a limit, an exteriority of a great whole, it's something that is,
by definition, marginalised. But here, this point, this object, begins to
proliferate [...], begins to amplify, to recompose something that is no
longer a totality, but that makes a former totality shift, detotalises,
deterritorialises an entity.' (Guattari 1985/1995) Thus, in the context of
media art, 'becoming minor' is a strategy of turning major technologies
into minor machines.

a. Krzysztof Wodiczko (PL/USA): Alien Staff

Krzysztof Wodiczko's Alien Staff is a mobile communication system and
prosthetic instrument which facilitates the communication of immigrants and
aliens in the countries to which they have migrated and in which they have
insufficient command of the language for communicating on a par with the
native inhabitants.

Alien Staff consists of a hand-held staff which has a small video monitor
and a loudspeaker at the top. The operator can adjust the height of the
staff's head to be at a level with his or her own head. Via the video
monitor, the operator can replay pre-recorded elements of a conversation,
an interview, or a narration of him- or herself. The recorded material may
contain biographical information when people have difficulties constructing
coherent narratives in the foreign language, but it may also include the
description of feelings and impressions which the operator normally doesn't
get a chance to talk about in the new environment. The instrument can
function as an interpreter both in the sense of a translator, and in the
sense of a mediator. The Staff is used in public places where passers-by
are attracted to listen to the recording and engage in a conversation with
the operator. Special transparent segments of the staff contain
memorabilia, photographs or other objects which indicate a part of the
personal history of the operator and which may be used to introduce a
conversation about the operator's background.

The Alien Staff offers individuals an opportunity to remember and retell
their own story and to confront people in the country of immigration with
this particular story. The Staff reaffirms the migrant's own subjectivity
and re-singularises individuals who are often perceived as the
representative of a homogenous group. The instrument displaces expectations
of the audience by articulating unformulated aspects of the migrant's
subjectivity through a medium that appears as the attractive double of an
apparently 'invisible' person. This medium neither broad-casts, nor does it
narrow-cast to a particular audience. It is a specific, minor intervention
into the everyday territory of a majority and suggests a possible type of
practice that Guattari meant by 'post-media'.

2. Guattari on media: mass media, new technologies and 'planetary

Guattari's comments about media are mostly made in passing and display a
clearly outlined opinion about the role of media in contemporary society: a
staunch critique of mass media is coupled with an optimistic outlook to the
potentials of a post-medial age in which new technologies can develop their
singularising, heterogenic forces. The latter development is, as Guattari
suggests, already discernible in the field of art and other cultural
practices making use of electronic networks, and can lead to a state of
'planetary computerisation' in which multiple new subject-groups can
emerge. For the purpose of this essay, a brief sketch of this complex of
ideas, which is mainly based on texts written in the late 1980s and early
90s, will have to suffice.

Guattari consistently refers to the mass media with contempt, qualifying
them as a stupefying machinery that is closely wedded to the forces of
global capitalism, and that is co-responsible for much of the reactionary
hyper-individualism, the desperation and the 'state of emergency' that
currently dominates 'four-fifth of humanity' (C 97; cf TE 16, 21). Guattari
makes a passionate plea for a new social ecology and formulates, as one
step towards this goal, the necessity, 'to guide these capitalist societies
of the age of mass media into a post-mass medial age; by this I mean that
the mass media have to be reappropriated by a multiplicity of
subject-groups who are able to administer them on a path of
singularisation' (TE 64). Beside classical leftist strategies for inducing
this 'shift away from oppressive mass-mediatic modernity toward some kind
of more liberating post-media age in which subjective assemblages of
self-reference might come into their own' (Guattari 1989, p.98) - raising
the consciousness of the masses, the abolishment of Stalinism, new forms of
collectivity and work -, Guattari explicitly mentions the 'technological
development of mass media, especially their miniaturisation, the lowering
of their costs, and the possibility of using them for non-capitalistic
ends' (TE 65).

Guattari posits the non-hierarchical potential of information technologies
in reorganising social structures, and highlights the fundamental changes
that the emergence of 'computer-based subjectivities' will bring about for
the being of humans (TE 42, 29). Without negating the strictly capitalistic
framework within which this development is currently taking place, he
expresses high hopes for the 'machinic mutations (...) which
deterritorialise subjectivity.' (C 97) The development of interfaces that
support a return to orality will be an important step in this direction:
'The era of the digital keyboard will soon be over; it is through speech
that dialogue with machines will be initiated - not just with technical
machines, but with machines of thought, sensation, and consultation ....
All of this, I repeat, provided that society changes, provided that new
social, political, aesthetic and analytical practices allow us to escape
from the shackles of empty speech which crush us, from the erosion of
meaning which is occurring everywhere (...).' (C 97)

Some of this restrained enthusiasm came from Guattari's experience, in the
1970s, of working with the French Community Radio movement which, in the
aftermath of 1968, tried to realise principles of community access, direct
democracy and the freedom of speech through local public media. More
recently, Guattari was being influenced by the writings of Pierre Levy, a
French philosopher who since the 1980s has been working on the potential
role that new technologies are playing for the emergence of what Levy calls
a 'collective intelligence.' Levy claims that the extending communication
networks create a new cultural space in which general participation and
interconnection can bring forth a new form of universality, a global
cultural plane that is universal in both its openness and its continuous
internal transformation, and that is not totalising as regards the contents
or ideologies it carries. It seems that this optimistic interpretation of
the socio-political effects of new technologies, of a 'universality without
totalisation', influenced the rather euphoric attitude that Guattari took.
(cf Guattari 1990/1995, p.115, C 96-7, C 107)

Guattari's conception of post-media, and its adaptation by others, has
recently been denounced by the English critic Richard Barbrook for being
dishonest and for siding with the techno-utopian, neo-liberal right. (cf
Barbrook 1998) Barbrook's argument hinges on allegations that Guattari was
authoritarian in his leadership of the Paris community radio Frequence
Libre, and that, amongst other things, he and Deleuze were Stalinists who
instigated the purges of Cambodia by the Khmer Rouge. Barbrook accuses
'Deleuzoguattarians' of being unable to grasp the truly subversive
potential of the Net which, as he explains, has initiated a gift economy in
which a growing number of workers can participate without the mediation of
cultural elites. Market competition is whithering away as 'workers can now
experience non-alienated labour within the hi-tech gift economy'. Take this
as you will ... Ironically, Barbrook's scenario comes across as even more
rosily utopian, and more similar to the neo-liberalist exploits of Wired
magazine, than Guattari's, who qualifies his hopes and who, more
importantly, takes the socio-technical transformations into account that
will be necessary to realise this 'machinic revolution'. As Barbrook
rejects Guattari's analytical terms, he gets stuck in copying a
19th-century Marxian utopia, a history painting with digital artisans
instead of peasants and workers' collectives.

Barbrook does not recognise technologies as potentially subjectifying
forces and sees them as a mere tool of unchanged human action and exchange.
He therefore has little sense of the potential for a fundamental upheaval
of the social and technical economy that digital technologies are
effecting. Guattari, on the other hand, strongly believed that a radical
redefinition of the role of technology, and of the relationship between
humans and machines, was both vital for the success of his project, and
most critical for many of those who he saw as potential allies. He
therefore committed a considerable amount of attention to arguing the
necessity of a positive technological agenda. 'People have little reason to
turn away from machines; which are nothing other than hyperdeveloped and
hyperconcentrated forms of certain aspects of human subjectivity, and
emphatically not those aspects that polarise people in relations of
domination and power. It will be possible to build a two-way bridge between
human beings and machines and, once we have established that, to herald new
and confident alliances between them.' (Guattari 1989, p.96) The 'age of
planetary computerization' (Guattari 1989, p.103) is an era of 'a monstrous
reinforcement of earlier systems of alienation, an oppressive mass-media
culture and an infantalising politics of consensus' (ibid.), but more than
the previous historical phases, this age also holds the potential of
radical change for the better.

b. Seiko Mikami (J/USA): World, Membrane and the Dismembered Body

An art project that deals with the cut between the human subject and the
body, and with the deterritorialisation of the sense of self, is Seiko
Mikami's World, Membrane and the Dismembered Body. It uses the visitor's
heart and lung sounds which are amplified and transformed within the space
of the installation. These sounds create a gap between the internal and
external sounds of the body. The project is presented in an-echoic room
where sound does not reverberate. Upon entering this room, it is as though
your ears are no longer living while paradoxically you also feel as though
all of your nerves are concentrated in your ears. The visitor has the
impression of being inside a huge ear, of being immersed in the membrane of
the ear.

The sounds of the heart, lungs, and pulse beat are digitized by the
computer system and act as parameters to form a continuously transforming
3-d polygonal mesh of body sounds moving through the room. Two situations
are effected in real time: the slight sounds produced by the body itself
resonate in the body's internal membranes, and the transfigured resonance
of those sounds is amplified in the space. A time-lag separates both
perceptual events.

The visitor is overcome by the feeling that a part of his or her
corporeality is under erasure. The body exists as abstract data, only the
perceptual sense is aroused. The visitor is made conscious of the
disappearance of the physical contours of his or her subjectivity and
thereby experiences being turned into a fragmented body. The ears mediate
the space that exists between the self and the body. Mikami's work
fragments the body and its perceptual apparatus into data, employing them
as interfaces and thus folding the body's horizon back onto itself. This is
not the 'body without organs' that Guattari and Deleuze speak about. Yet,
the art project facilitates an experience which may point in its direction.
More importantly, the project elucidates the difference between an actual
and a virtual body, the actual body being deterritorialised and projected
outwards towards a number of potential, virtual bodies that can, in the
installation, be experienced as maybe even more 'real' than the actual body.

3. Guattari on art

Guattari's conception of post-media implies criss-crossing intersections of
aesthetic, ethical, political and technological planes, among which the
aesthetic, and with it artistic creativity, are ascribed a position of
special prominence. This special role of art is a trope that recurs quite
frequently in Guattari's writings, even though he is rarely specific about
the artistic practices he has in mind. In A Thousand Plateaus, Deleuze and
Guattari give some detailled attention to the works of artists like
Debussy, Boulez, Beckett, Artaud, Kafka, Kleist, Proust, and Klee, and
Chaosmosis includes longer passages and concrete examples for the relevance
of the aesthetic paradigm. These examples come almost exclusively from the
fields of performing arts, music and literature, while visual arts are all
but absent. One reason for this could be that the performing arts are
time-based and processual and thus lend themselves much better to
theorisation of flows, transformations and differentiations. The visual
arts can be related to the abstract machine of faciality (visageite) which
produces unified, molar, identical entities out of a multiplicity of
different singularities, assigning them to a specific category and
associating them with particular social fields. (cf MP 167-91) This
semiotic territorialisation is much more likely to happen in the case of
static images, whether two- or three-dimensional, than in time-based art
forms. An interesting question, then, would be whether media art projects,
many of which are time-based, processual and open-ended, can be considered
as potential post-medial art practices. Moreover, given the status of
computer software as the central motor of the digital age, and the crucial
role it plays in aesthetic productions like those discussed here, software
may have to be viewed as the epitome of post-medial machines.

Guattari seems to have been largely unaware of the beginnings of digital
media art as it developed in the 1980s. He talks in rather general terms
about the exemplary working style of the artist that the mental ecosophy
will have to follow in order to 'search for relief from the mass-medial and
tele-informatic uniformity, from the conformism of fashions and the
manipulation of public opinion by opinion polls and advertising' (TE 23).
Guattari suggests that the artist is particularly well-equipped to
conceptualise the necessary steps for this work because, unlike engineers,
he or she is not tied to a particular programme or plan for a product, and
can change the course of a project at any point if an unexpected event or
accident intrudes. (cf TE 50)

The significance of art for Guattari's thinking comes primarily from its
close relation with processes of subjectivation. 'Just as scientific
machines constantly modify our cosmic frontiers, so do the machines of
desire and aesthetic creation. As such, they hold an eminent place within
assemblages of subjectivation, themselves called to relieve our old social
machines which are incapable of keeping up with the efflorescence of
machinic revolutions that shatter our epoch.' (C 54) The aesthetic paradigm
facilitates the development of new, virtual forms of subjectivity, and of
liberation, which will be adequate to the machinic revolutions: 'Once
again, it is the aesthetic machine which seems to be in the best position
to disclose some of its often unrecognised but essential dimensions: the
finitude relative to its life and death, the production of proto-alterity
in the register of its environment and of its multiple implications, its
incorporeal genetic filiations.' (C 107)

c. Knowbotic Research + cF: IO_Dencies

The Alien Staff project was mentioned as an example for the
re-singularisation and the virtualisation of identity, and World, Membrane
and the Dismembered Body as an instance of the deterritorialisation and
virtualisation of the human body through an artistic interface. The most
recent project by Knowbotic Research, IO_Dencies - Questioning Urbanity,
deals with the possibilities of agency, collaboration and construction in
translocal and networked environments. It points in the direction of what
Guattari has called the formation of 'group subjects' through connective

The project looks at urban settings in different megacities like Tokyo and
Sao Paulo, analyses the forces present in particular local urban
situations, and offers experimental interfaces for dealing with these local
force fields. IO_Dencies Sao Paulo enables the articulation of subjective
experiences of the city through a collaborative process. Over a period of
several months, a group of young architects and urbanists from Sao Paulo,
the 'editors', provide the content and dynamic input for a database. The
editors collect material (texts, images, sounds) based on the situation
they are in at the moment and on their personal urban experience. A
specially designed editor tool also allows the editors to build individual
conceptual 'maps' in which each editor can construct the relations between
the different materials in the data-pool according to his or her subjective
perception of the city.

On the computational level, connectivities are created between the
different maps of the editors, a process that is driven by algorithmic
self-organisation whose rules are determined by the choices that the
editors make. In the process, the collaborative editorial work in the
database generates zones of intensities and zones of tension, which are
visualised as force fields and turbulences and which can be experienced
through interfaces on the internet and at physical exhibition sites.
Participants on the Net and in the exhibition can modify and influence
these electronic urban movements, force fields and intensities on an
abstract, visual level, as well as on a content-based, textual level. The
objects in this force field are purely symbolic and conceptual, and the
parameters are not spatial or territorial, but relational and depend on the
editors' approach to their urban material.

The visualisation shows the intensity of relational forces in the data-pool
as they are being constructed and transformed by the self-organisation.
When zooming in, the keywords referring to specific materials in the
database appear. By selecting them, it is possible to see or hear the
respective textual, visual or auditory material on a separate monitor. This
engagement with the projects and its material is fed back into the database
and influences the relational forces within the project's digital
environment. The networked project facilitates the fusion of reception and
construction by several connected translocal users.

Characteristic of the forms of agency as they evolve in networked
environments is that they are neither individualistic nor collective, but
rather connective. Whereas the collective is ideally determined by an
intentional and empathetic relation between agents within an assemblage,
the connective rests on any kind of machinic relation and is therefore more
versatile, more open, and based on the heterogeneity of its components or
members. In the IO_Dencies interfaces, the different participants become
visible for each other, creating a trans-local zone of connective agency.
The inter-connectedness of their activities can be experienced visually,
acoustically, and through the constant reconfiguration of the data sets, an
experience which can become the basis of the formation of a specific,
heterogeneous group subject.

4. Guattari's concept of the machinic

An important notion underlying these analyses is that of the machine which,
for Guattari, relates not so much to particular technological or mechanical
objects, to the technical infrastructure or the physical flows of the urban
environment. 'Machines' can be social bodies, industrial complexes,
psychological or cultural formations, such as the complex of desires,
habits and incentives that create particular forms of collective behaviour
in groups of individuals, or the aggregation of materials, instruments,
human individuals, lines of communication, rules and conventions that
together constitute a factory or administrative institution. 'Machines' are
assemblages of heterogeneous parts, aggregations which transform forces,
articulate and propel their elements, and force them into a continuous
state of transformation and becoming. Machines are multiplicities without
unity, they are criss-crossed by multiple lines of forces.

The machine is always productive, as against the 'anti-production' of a
fixed structure. Its productivity lies in the creation of discontinuities
and disruptions, it dislodges a given order and runs against routines and
expectations. The product of the machine and the process of production are
synonymous: the machine produces the process of transformation. The
machinic appears in a mode of immediacy and incidentality, confronting a
structure with other potentialities and questioning its given shape.

For Guattari, the concept of the machinic and the aesthetic are inseparably
coupled: '[The] processual aesthetic paradigm [of ontological
heterogenification] works with (and is worked by) scientific and ethical
paradigms. It is installed transversally to technoscience because
technoscience's machinic Phylums are in essence creative, because this
creativity tends to connect with the creativity of the artistic process.
But to establish such a bridge, we have to shed our mechanist visions of
the machine and promote a conception which encompasses all of its aspects:
technological, biological, informatic, social, theoretical and aesthetic.'
(C 107)

The notion of the machinic phylum is introduced by Deleuze and Guattari in
A Thousand Plateaus in order to articulate the dynamic and transformational
forces inherent in any substance: 'We may speak of a machinic phylum, or
technological lineage, wherever we find a constellation of singularities,
prolongable by certain operations, which converge, and make the operations
converge, upon one or several assignable traits of expression.' (TP 406)
The Mexican-American writer Manuel De Landa has elaborated on the
usefulness of the notion of the machinic phylum to express the double
articulation of the machinic as a continuously transforming and
transformed, connecting and releasing processuality. A 'structure' is a
closed system of well-defined elements which are related to each other and
related to other systems. The machine, in contrast, implies the sudden
appearance of the radically new, it is a breaking point and a singular
point of discontinuity.

In Guattari's conception of the machinic, machines form a binary-linear
system. As Henning Schmidgen outlines, 'there is always one machine which
brings forth an energy flow, and another machine which is coupled with it
and which makes a cut, tapping into the energy flow.' This cut of one
machine into another takes the form of an event or incident, it happens
immediately. It is 'significant' insofar as it transposes expressive
material from one machine to another and ruptures the semiosis of the
second. The machinic cut ('coupure'), is the interface, the
'Schnittstelle', it is a field of potential agency and a field of potential

Guattari's conception of the machinic suggests a reading of the media art
projects presented here, and other such projects, in relation to the
technological, social and aesthetic phyla which bring them forth. Becoming
machine, one of the many heterogeneous becomings that Guattari describes
and that is a potential effect of minor media machines, would mean
following the deterritorialising line of flight of the phylum.

d. Xchange network

My final example is possibly the most evocative in relation to Guattari's
notions of the polyvocity and heterogenesis that new media technologies can
trigger. It also links up closely with Guattari's own engagement with the
minor community radio movement. In late 1997, the E-Lab in Riga initiated
the Xchange network for audio experiments on the Internet. The
participating groups in London, Ljubljana, Sidney, Berlin, and many other
minor and major places, use the Net for distributing their original sound
programmes. The Xchange network is 'streaming via encoders to remote
servers, picking up the stream and re-broadcasting it purely or re-mixed,
looping the streams' (Rasa Smite).

Xchange is a distributed group, a connective, that builds creative
cooperation in live-audio streaming on the communication channels that
connect them. The people of Xchange and others are thus also exploring the
Net as a sound-scape with particular qualities regarding data transmission,
delay, feedback, and open, distributed collaborations. Moreover, they
connect the network with a variety of other fields. Instead of defining an
'authentic' place of their artistic work, they play in the transversal
post-medial zone of media labs in different countries, mailing lists,
net-casting and FM broadcasting, clubs, magazines, stickers, etc., in which
'real' spaces and media continuously overlap and fuse. (cf Break/Flow 1998)

Xchange especially explores the possibilities for co-streaming. One of the
initiators, Raitis Smits, describes the main strategies: 'The simplest one
is to mix your sound source with another (one or more) real audio
live-stream. In this case each of the participants is doing one part of
this live session (e.g. one is streaming voice, another background music).
There one can listen two (or more) different streams - the final one with
all transmissions mixed together or each 'input' live stream separately.
Another interesting experience of co-streaming is creating the loop. Each
broadcaster takes another's live stream, re-encodes it and sends it further
for the next participant. In this loop sound input is going around and
coming back with a small delay of 5 to 10 seconds, which creates multiple
sound layers. When the sound keeps travelling around, the stream gets more
and more noisy, and finally it turns into one continuous noise.'

5. Heterogenic practices

I believe that, if we want to understand the technological and the
political implications of the machinic environment of the digital networks,
and if we want to see the emergence of the group subjects of the post-media
age Guattari talks about, we may have to look at connectives like Xchange
and the editor-participant assemblages of IO_Dencies. The far-reaching
machinic transformations which they articulate, hold the potential of what
Guattari refers to as the 'molecular revolution'. To realise this
revolution, it is vital to 'forge new analytical instruments, new concepts,
because it is (...) the transversality, the crossing of abstract machines
that constitute a subjectivity and that are incarnated, that live in very
different regions and domains and (...) that can be contradictory and
antagonistic.' For Guattari, this is not a mere theoretical question, but
one of experimentation, 'of new forms of interactions, of movement
construction that respects the diversity, the sensitivities, the
particularities of interventions, and that is nonetheless capable of
constituting antagonistic machines of struggle to intervene in power
relations' (Guattari 1985/1995, p.4-5).

The implication here is that some of the minor media practices pursued by
artists using digital technologies point us in the direction of the
positive potentials of post media. The line of flight of such
experimentation is the construction of new and strong forms of
subjectivity, 'an individual and/or collective reconstitution of the self'
(TE 21), which can strengthen the process of what Guattari calls
'heterogenesis, that is a continuous process of resingularisation. The
individuals must, at the same time, become solidary and ever more
different.' (TE 76)


Inke Arns / Andreas Broeckmann: 'Small Media Normality for the East.' In:
Nettime, ZKP 4, and on Rewired:, 1997
Richard Barbrook: 'The Holy Fools.' In: Mute, No.11, London 1998, p.57-65
Break/Flow: 'Post-Media Operators.' Nettime, 10 June 1998
Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari: Kafka. Pour une litterature mineur. Paris:
Ed. de Minuit, 1975 (K)
Gilles Deleuze, Felix Guattari: Tausend Plateaus. (1980) Berlin: Merve,
1992 (MP)
Felix Guattari: Pragmatic/Machinic. Discussion with Guattari, conducted and
transcribed by Charles J. Stivale. (1985) In: Pre/Text, Vol. 14, No. 3-4,
Felix Guattari: Cartographies schizoanalytiques. Paris: Ed. Galilee, 1989 (CS)
Felix Guattari: 'Regimes, Pathways, Subjects.' (1989) , p. 95-108 (from: CS)
Felix Guattari: Die drei Ökologien. (1989) Wien: Passagen Verlag, 1994 (TE)
Felix Guattari: 'Über Maschinen.' (1990) In: Schmidgen 1995, p. 115-32
Felix Guattari: Chaosmosis. An ethico-aesthetic paradigm. (1992) Sidney:
Power Publications, 1995 (C)
Knowbotic Research: IO_Dencies (1997-8) -
Manuel De Landa: 'The Machinic Phylum.' In: V2_Organisation (eds):
Technomorphica. Rotterdam: V2_Organisation, 1997
Seiko Mikami: World, Membrane and the Dismembered Body. (1997) -
H. Schmidgen (ed): Ästhetik und Maschinismus. Texte zu und von Felix
Guattari. Berlin: Merve, 1995
Henning Schmidgen: Das Unbewußte der Maschinen. Konzeptionen des
Psychischen bei Guattari, Deleuze und Lacan. München: Fink, 1997
Krzysztof Wodiczko -
Xchange -

(Rotterdam/Berlin, November 1998)

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